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Revista Paulista de Pediatriavol.
DOI: Methods: A case-control study was performed with individuals diagnosed with ASD and individuals without s of the disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire and the multiple logistic regression model were adopted in the data analysis. To estimate the magnitude of associations, the crude and adjusted Odds Ratio OR was used. : An association with the following factors was found: having been born with congenital malformation OR 4.
Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that malformation, neonatal jaundice, absence of crying at birth and seizure episodes in childhood are important factors to be considered when studying the etiology of ASD. Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that involves persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and in social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, and whose symptoms generally appear in early childhood. From the first epidemiological study on ASD, conducted in in the United Kingdom, to one of the most recent studies, conducted in in the United States, there has been an increase in the prevalence of this disorder in the population.
In the first study, an estimated 4. The great phenotypic variability observed in individuals with ASD can occur due to the interaction between genes and the environment, interaction of multiple genes within the same genome, and distinct combinations of genes in different individuals.
There is still a lack of research investigating this issue, especially in South America.
In this context, this study aimed to estimate the magnitude of the association between ASD and postnatal factors in a Brazilian population. This was part of a control case study that investigated the association between prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. Sample size was planned for an independent control case, aiming to estimate an Odds Ratio OR of 1.
The required sample size was defined at cases and controls. We aimed to identify control children in the same age group at a ratio of Intentionally, the gender variable was not considered, since there is interest in verifying the association between ASD and sex in the Brazilian population. The managers of the identified schools were sensitized and 63 agreed to participate in this study. The mothers of these children were contacted, and 1, accepted to participate in the survey.
The data collection was conducted individually and in person, at a ly scheduled place and time, according to the availability of the mothers. A pre-trained team of graduate students, participants in a scientific initiation program, scheduled and Need girl to fuck Montes claros mb the interviews.
A semi-structured instrument was used, based on a literature review and reviewed by a multiprofessional team. All the answers were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, filled out by the mothers of both groups, with the presence of a member of the team to provide clarification. The child was born at how many weeks? The type of neonatal infection was also investigated, with the response alternatives being: conjunctivitis, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis generalized infection and others; which ones?
The questions about the children referred to events from birth to present age. Apgar score and head circumference were not included because of lack of information. BW was defined by the first measurement after birth, with weight below 2, g being classified as low weight, and below 1, g as very low weight.
The mother was defined as a smoker mother when she used any type of cigarette during gestation, regardless of the. The other variables were weighted according to the presence or absence of the evaluated event. The questionnaires applied in this pre-test were not included in the study. The mothers were instructed to take the prenatal record and the vaccination card at the time of data collection. Frequency distributions of all variables were performed according to the case and control groups. In the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used, and those variables that presented descriptive level p value lower than 0.
The of post-natal complications associated with ASD were also evaluated. To evaluate the fit quality of the model, we adopted the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the pseudo R 2 Nagelkerke statistic. The sample consisted of 1, individuals, of which were from the case group and from the control group. Of these, There were also positive associations between ASD and most of the variables related to the postnatal factors, except for preterm, LGA, having undergone some type of surgery and the presence of neonatal anemia Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1 Distributions of the case and control groups according to the characteristics of the newborn: Crude Odds Ratio with respective confidence intervals. It was also observed that the magnitude of the association was greater in the group that had two or more postnatal complications than in the group that had only one Table 4. Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. In the last decades, associations between postnatal factors and ASD have been reported, and this case control study in a Brazilian population has verified an association with the following factors: being born with GMFD, JB, absence of crying and seizure episode.
The showed similarity between the groups in terms of mean age and social class. Because of the small of individuals in this group, only the presence or absence of such factor was checked in the analyzes. Similar to those reported were found by other studies, which also found association, differing from the study by Zhang et al. On the other hand, positive association between ASD and absence of crying at birth was not observed by other authors.
These factors can result from a variety of gestational Need girl to fuck Montes claros mb and birth events that, at birth, can cause problems in the brain due to oxygen deprivation. As for SGA, there is still restricted intrauterine growth - limited transport of nutrients and oxygen via the placenta may impede the growth potential of the fetus.
This is also a condition associated with chronic hypoxia. Therefore, it is conceivable that restricted intrauterine growth may contribute to the manifestations of ASD observed in children born SGA. A study performed with a preterm population found that the low end BW, betweeng, is also associated with ASD.
The presence of any type of infection at birth was another factor associated with ASD in the present study, as well as in the study by Hadjkacem et al. These findings may be explained by the release of cytokines in the immune response to infections, affecting the proliferation and differentiation of neural cells, which may lead to the development of ASD. In the adjusted analyzes, there was also a positive association between ASD and the occurrence of seizures, independently of the presence or absence of fever.
Association with the same magnitude was noted in the study by McCue et al. These data reinforce the importance of monitoring children with one or more postnatal complications, since it may contribute to the identification of s and to the early diagnosis of ASD.
In addition, the use of M-CHAT to track children older than 30 months was another limitation, but the specific s of ASD are expected to persist with increasing age when appropriate interventions are not performed. The findings of the present study suggest that GMFD, JB, absence of crying at birth and episodes of seizure in childhood are important factors to be considered when studying the etiology of ASD. It is believed that the knowledge of the factors involved in the etiology of ASD can facilitate immediate diagnosis and intervention and, consequently, a better prognosis for people with ASD and support for the relatives, besides causing a reduction in public expenses.
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Biological Maturation, Body Morphology and Physical Performance in 8–16 year-old obese girls from Montes Claros – MG